印度:轉角遇見豹--中國數字科技館

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                    印度:轉角遇見豹

                    印度:轉角遇見豹(科學60S) 0:00/0:00
                    最新發布時間: 2016-02-16
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                    Big Cats and People Live in Close Quarters in India

                    印度:轉角遇見豹


                    The numbers of large carnivores, especially leopards, are increasing in private lands and lands outside the protected-area systems in India, bringing new challenges for coexistence.

                    在印度,私有土地和未劃入保護區的土地中的大型食肉動物數量,特別是豹的數量在不斷上升,為人與野生動物的共存帶來了挑戰。


                    撰文/播音 史蒂夫·米爾斯基(Steve Mirsk)

                    翻譯 Meatle

                    審校 李軒


                    "In India, as a consequence of stricter protection of wildlife and increased tolerance, numbers of large carnivores are increasing in private lands and lands outside the protected-area systems."Ullas Karanth of the U.S.-based Wildlife Conservation Society and India's Centre for Wildlife Studies.

                    “在印度,由于對野生動物越發嚴格的保護措施與對野生動物越來越高的容忍度,私有土地和未劃入保護區的土地上的肉食動物數量正在上升?!泵绹吧鷦游锉Wo組織與印度野生動物研究中心(U.S.-based Wildlife Conservation Society and India’s Centre for Wildlife Studies)的烏拉斯·卡拉夫(Ullas Karanth)如是說。


                    "While this is a good thing for conservation it poses serious problems for management because occasionally these interactions turn hostile, between people and carnivores. And this issue is particularly serious with leopards."

                    “對于動物保護來說,這當然是一件好事,但這也為管理帶來了難題,因為偶爾人類與食肉動物的交互會轉化為敵對行動。而這個問題在豹身上尤其嚴重?!?/span>


                    Karanth and his team studied interactions between people and leopards in Karnataka, a state in India's southwest that's home to more than 60 million people. Leopards can be found in 47 percent of the state, in areas outside parks and other sanctuaries. So people and leopards do, every once in a while, run into each other.

                    卡拉夫與他的隊員在卡納塔克邦研究人類與豹的交互??{塔克邦位于印度的西南部,居住著6千萬人。在該邦47%的地區,包括保護區以外與其他場所,都能找到豹的身影。因此人們與豹的相遇在所難免。


                    To gauge the frequency of such interactions, the researchers scoured media reports during a 14-month period from 2013 to 2014. The total tally was 245 separate incidents. Most were attacks on livestock or simple sightings of the leopards by people. But leopards did attack people 32 times, causing three deaths. Thirty-four leopards died in the study period, mostly from poaching and being hit by vehicles. Capturing and relocating the animals did not seem to be an effective way to cut down on animal-human contacts. The study is in the journal PLoS ONE. [Vidya Athreya et al, Spotted in the News: Using Media Reports to Examine Leopard Distribution, Depredation, and Management Practices outside Protected Areas in Southern India]

                    為了計量這種相互作用的頻率,研究人員瀏覽了2013-2014年間14個月的媒體報道,其中包含了245次獨立的事件。大多為豹襲擊牲畜或是被人類目擊的報道。然而,在32個事件中,豹襲擊了人類,并造成3人死亡。在這段時間中,有34頭豹死亡,主要由于非法捕獵和交通事故。捕捉和轉移這些動物并不能有效減少人類與它們的交互。該項研究發表在《公共科學圖書館期刊》上。


                    So how can the large carnivores and people better coexist? The researchers think that an obvious but important step is to get a lot more data on just where leopards are most likely to be found in populated areas, so people can avoid the cats. And that farmers should be quickly and fairly compensated for any livestock losses. Which seems to be a better alternative than trying to hunt down and kill or move the offending animal.

                    如何能夠做到大型肉食性動物與人類共存?研究人員認為一個明顯而且重要的步驟是采集大量數據,確定豹在人口稠密地區的最有可能出沒的地點,從而讓人們避開豹。同時應該使農民能便捷且公平地獲得牲畜損失的賠償。比起將之抓獲,從而殺死或轉移,這種方法貌似是一種更好的代替方案。


                    原文鏈接:http://www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode/big-cats-and-people-live-in-close-quarters-in-india/


                    (題圖來源:www.telegraph.co.uk)


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