野生動物可與狩獵者共同生存--中國數字科技館

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                    野生動物可與狩獵者共同生存

                    野生動物可與狩獵者共同生存(科學60S) 0:00/0:00
                    最新發布時間: 2016-10-31
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                    Wildlife Can Bear with Hunters and Hikers
                    野生動物可與狩獵者共同生存


                    播音/撰文 杰森G.戈德曼(Jason G. Goldman)

                    翻譯 bing

                    審校 吳非


                    A new study suggests the best predictor of wildlife abundance in public lands is not human activity, but factors like forest connectivity and nearby housing density. Jason G. Goldman reports.
                    一項新的研究顯示,相比于人類活動,其他因素類似于森林連通性(forest connectivity)和附近房屋密度才是預測公共土地上野生動物數量的最好標準。杰森G.戈德曼(Jason G. Goldman)報道。


                    Public lands in the U.S. are managed with two goals in mind: protecting biodiversity and providing people with recreational opportunities, a chance to connect with nature. But sometimes those two goals are at odds—especially if recreation, activities like hiking or hunting, disrupts wild animals enough to alter their use of those landscapes.
                    美國的公共土地管理有兩大目標:保護生物多樣性、為人類提供與自然接觸的娛樂機會。但有時,這兩個目標會互相沖突——尤其是像徒步或打獵這類的娛樂活動會驚擾到野生動物,使它們不得不換地方生存。


                    Indeed, several years ago, a study done in California found that hikers had a negative impact on wildlife.
                    事實上,在幾年前,加州的一項研究表明徒步者對野生動物造成消極影響。


                    "That kind of sounded a bit of an alarm to us as wildlife biologists and as people who like to go hiking ourselves."
                    “對于野生動物學家和喜歡徒步的人們來說,這項研究可謂是起到了警醒作用?!?/span>


                    Wildlife biologist Roland Kays, of the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences and N.C. State University.
                    野生動物學家羅蘭·凱斯工作于北卡羅萊納自然科學博物館(North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences and)和北卡羅萊納州立大學(N.C. State University)。


                    "We were pretty worried that if this problem was as bad as it seemed from that study, and was widespread, then there could be a real conflict between outdoor recreation and wildlife conservation."
                    “我們很擔心如果這個問題和研究報告里一樣嚴重怎么辦,那樣的話人類的戶外娛樂活動將和野生動物保護沖突?!?/span>


                    To find out, Kays and his team enlisted the help of more than 350 volunteer citizen scientists, who deployed camera traps at nearly 2,000 sites within 32 protected areas in six different states. Roughly half of the areas allowed hunting and half did not. What they discovered was something of a relief.
                    為了研究這一問題,凱斯和他的團隊在350名公民科學家志愿者的幫助下,在6個州的32個保護區內放置了近2000個相機陷阱。在這些保護區中,一半可以狩獵而另一半不可以。他們的發現結果終于讓人松了口氣。


                    "We found relatively minor impacts of hunting and hiking on wildlife."
                    It's not that human activities didn't impact wildlife at all of course. Heavily hunted species, like white-tailed deer, grey squirrels, and raccoons, were photographed somewhat less often in hunted areas. Coyotes showed up more often in hunted areas. While most species didn't avoid hiking trails, the predators actually preferred them.
                    “我們發現狩獵和徒步對于野生動物的影響很小?!碑斎?,人類活動對野生動物還是有影響的。被大量捕殺的物種,像白尾鹿,灰松鼠和浣熊,很少出現在捕獵區域,而郊狼的出現變得更加頻繁。大部分動物都不避開徒步者,相反,這些捕食者則更喜歡靠近他們。


                    But they did find something that had a much bigger impact on wildlife: habitat quality. The best predictor of wildlife abundance was not human activity, but factors like forest connectivity, nearby housing density, and the amount of adjacent agriculture. The results were published in the Journal of Applied Ecology. [Roland Kays et al., Does hunting or hiking affect wildlife communities in protected areas?]
                    調查的確發現了對野生動物生存有很大影響的因素:生活環境的質量。森林連通性、附近房屋密度、相鄰農業的數量才是影響野生動物數量的決定性因素。研究結果發表在《應用生態學報》(Applied Ecology)。


                    And they suggest that outdoor recreation, a 646-billion-dollar industry in the U.S., is currently managed in a sustainable way, but also that protecting the scattered patches of wild habitat that remain in the U.S. is vital—both for wildlife and for people.
                    美國戶外娛樂業的價值高達6460億,人們正在用可持續發展的方式管理該產業。研究人員提出,保護被分割的小塊野生動物棲息地對于野生動物和人類都十分重要。

                    "Recreation, including hunting and hiking, and wildlife conservation, can coexist in the same place at the same time, and we can go out there and enjoy nature, enjoy the woods, hope to catch a glimpse of wildlife, without worrying about hurting the populations in the process."
                    —Jason G. Goldman
                    “狩獵和徒步等娛樂活動和野生動物保護是可以共存的。我們在外出享受自然、漫步森林、觀賞野生動物時,無須擔心這類行為會削減野生動物的數量?!?br/>——杰森G.戈德曼(Jason G. Goldman)


                    原文鏈接:
                    https://www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode/wildlife-can-bear-with-hunters-and-hikers/


                    (題圖來源:http://www.scientificamerican.com)



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