聽懂了嗎,動物世界中到處都有的驚嚇之聲--中國數字科技館

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                    聽懂了嗎,動物世界中到處都有的驚嚇之聲

                    聽懂了嗎,動物世界中到處都有的驚嚇之聲(科學60S) 0:00/0:00
                    最新發布時間: 2017-12-16
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                    Humans appear well equipped to recognize the alarm calls of other animals—perhaps because sounds of distress tend to have higher frequencies. Karen Hopkin reports.

                    人類似乎天生就能識別其他動物警戒性的叫聲——或許因為焦慮的叫聲通常帶有更高的頻率。

                     

                    撰文/播音 凱倫·霍普金(Karen Hopkin

                    翻譯 張清越

                    審校 潘磊

                     

                    What does panic sound like? <<clip of Homer Simpson scream>> Like that, for sure. But also like this <<pig sound>>. And this <<chickadee sound>>. But maybe you already knew that. Because a new study shows that humans are actually good at identifying vocalizations that are emotionally intense…even when those outcries come from other species. The findings are communicated in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

                    傳達出驚恐的聲音是什么樣的?或許來自《辛普森一家》里辛普森爸爸,也可能像來自小豬,山雀……但是你總能識別出來。一個新的研究顯示,人類在辨識帶有強烈情感的叫聲方面很有一套,哪怕這些聲音來自其他物種?!痘始覍W會學報》發表了這一發現。

                     

                    It was Charles Darwin who first mused about the evolution of emotional expression. 

                    As he wrote in the Descent of Man

                    思考關于情緒表達的演化,查爾斯·達爾文是第一個。他在《人類的由來》里寫道:

                     

                    "All the air-breathing Vertebrata necessarily possess an apparatus for inhaling and expelling air.... When the primeval members of this class were strongly excited and their muscles violently contracted, purposeless sounds would almost certainly have been produced."

                    “所有呼吸著空氣的脊椎動物都有一個用來吸氣和吐氣的器官當它們隸屬同種的遠古祖先強烈地興奮起來時,他們的肌肉會劇烈收縮,一些無意義的聲音順理成章地被制造出來。

                     

                    Now, if producing those seemingly purposeless noises turned out to be beneficial…by warning others of predators, summoning protection, or enticing a mate…the behavior would persist and, over time, become selected for.

                    如果發出那些看似無目的的聲音對生存是有益的——比如,可以警告捕食者、召喚同伴的保護、或者吸引配偶……那么這種行為就會延續下去,而且隨著時間的推移成為自然選擇中被保留的行為。

                     

                    Of course, for that to happen, the meanings behind those utterances would have to be clearly understood. To explore this question, researchers asked 75 volunteers to listen to vocalizations produced by nine different species, from black-capped chickadees to American alligators. The recordings included sounds made by animals when they were relatively relaxed…like this hourglass tree frog <<clip low arousal>>…or in some way excited…say, reacting to an aggressor or competing for a mate, like this hourglass tree frog <<clip high arousal>>. 

                    當然,這一切的前提是這些叫聲背后的意義能夠清楚地被其他個體理解。為了探究這一問題,研究人員要求75名志愿者聆聽從黑冕山雀到美洲短吻鱷等9種不同物種發出的叫聲錄音。這些錄音包括在動物們相對放松時的聲音,比如沙漏樹蛙平靜時發出的低沉;或者在動物們比較興奮時發出的聲音,像是在面對侵略者或爭奪配偶時發出的聲音,如沙漏樹蛙發出的高聲鳴叫。

                     

                    The listeners were then asked to identify which of the paired recordings from each species represented a sound of distress or “emotional arousal.”

                    志愿者們又被要求識別個物種發出的兩種聲音中哪一種痛苦處在情緒興奮狀態時的叫聲。

                     

                    The result?

                    結果如何呢?

                     

                    “We found that, yes, humans recognize higher levels of emotional intensity in species which span across all of these classes.”

                    我們發現,人類的確能夠識別幾乎所有綱目物所發出的情緒強度較高的聲音。

                     

                    Piera Filippi of the University of Aix-Marseille in France and the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics in the Netherlands, who led the study.

                    法國艾克斯-馬賽大學和荷蘭馬普心理語言學研究所的皮耶拉·菲莉比這項研究的領導者。

                     

                    “Interestingly, we did not find any effect of language background on the human’s accuracy.”

                    有趣的是,我們沒有發現語言背景不同實驗中人類判斷的準確性有任何影響。

                     

                    Participants who spoke English, German or Mandarin all did equally well at pointing out which chirps, squeals, and hoots were emotionally charged. They were also able to tell when actors speaking in Tamil, a language none of them had ever heard before, sounded upset.

                    那些說英語、德語或中文普通話的參與者都能很好地辨別出那些唧唧聲、尖叫聲和叫囂聲所表達的情緒。他們甚至能夠聽出來說泰米爾語的演員們言語中的沮喪感,而泰米爾語是一種他們均從未聽過的一門語言。

                     

                    “The finding thus suggests that humans’ ability to recognize higher levels of emotional intensity in animal vocalizations is biologically universal.”

                    這一發現表明,人類識別動物叫聲中蘊含的高強度情緒的能力是生物間通用的。

                     

                    The listeners seem to be tuning in on the higher frequency of alarm calls, the researchers say. These shifts in pitch are perhaps clearest in the vocalization of infants, such as the piglet <<pig sound high arousal>> used in this study. That suggests that we may be hardwired to recognize babies in distress. 

                    研究人員表示,志愿者似乎對高音調的警戒性叫聲更加敏感。而這些發聲大概幼體中是最常見的,例如小豬寶寶的高音調叫聲。這表明,我們可能天生就能識別出感覺到不適小寶寶們。

                     

                    We’re not necessarily horse whisperers…but it seems we all feel for that little piggy when it goes <<pig sound>> to make its emotions known.

                    我們不需要懂得動物的語言……只小豬發出這種高音調聲來傳達情緒時,我們能感受到它的情緒。

                     

                    —Karen Hopkin

                     

                    原文鏈接:https://www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode/screams-heard-round-the-animal-world/ 


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