野生鳴禽能學習新曲調--中國數字科技館

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                    野生鳴禽能學習新曲調

                    野生鳴禽能學習新曲調(科學60S) 0:00/0:00
                    最新發布時間: 2018-12-30
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                    Researchers taught two dozen wild sparrows new songs, by playing them the recordings of sparrows that live thousands of miles away. Jason G. Goldman reports.

                    研究人員播放數千英里以外的麻雀錄音,教會了二十幾只野麻雀的新歌。Jason G. Goldman報道。

                     

                    杰森 G. 戈德曼(Jason G. Goldman

                    翻譯:張朵兒

                    審校:張清越

                    Only a few kinds of animals are known to learn their vocalizations from listening to others. Us, of course. Elephants. Bats. Cetaceans—whales and dolphins. Pinnipeds—walruses, seals and sea lions. And parrots, hummingbirds and songbirds. That's it.

                    據現在的了解,只有少數動物通過傾聽他人來學習發聲。人類顯然是其一,還有大象、蝙蝠、部分鯨類,如鯨魚和海豚,鰭足類動物如海象、海豹和海獅。鸚鵡,蜂鳥和鳴禽songbird也可以。就只有這些。

                    "When your cat meows or your dog barks, it does that because it has genetically inherited that sound. But birds are like us, young animals have to hear adults in order to develop normal sounds."

                    貓叫、狗吠都是遺傳自基因里的聲音。但是鳥類和人類一樣,幼年時必須聽到成年個體的聲音才能學會發聲。

                    University of Windsor biologist Daniel Mennill.

                    溫莎大學生物學家丹尼爾·門尼爾(Daniel Mennill)說。

                    There have been hundreds of conventional experiments done in laboratories with captive birds that support the idea that young birds learn to sing by listening to older birds. These studies also taught us that birds, like humans, have what's called a "sensitive period" early in life, a time when they are most disposed to learn how to vocalize from their elders.

                    在實驗室里,早已進行了數百次傳統實驗。通過關在籠子里的鳥類試驗證明,幼鳥通過聽成年鳥的聲音學習唱歌。這些研究還表示,鳥類和人類一樣,在幼年期會有一個所謂的敏感時期。這個時期,們最容易向長輩學習如何發聲。

                    But nobody ever did one of those experiments with wild birds. Observational studies, yes. But no true experiments. Until now, thanks to some wild savanna sparrows.

                    但是還沒有人在野生鳥類上做過類似的實驗,有過觀察性研究,但沒有過真正的實驗。非常感謝野生稀樹草原麻雀(savanna sparrow給了我們一個在野外進行真正實驗的機會。

                    "So this population of savanna sparrows lives on an island in the Bay of Fundy in eastern North America, and it's been studied since the 1960s, so we know a lot about this population. It means we know every kind of sound that has ever been uttered by a savanna sparrow in this population over the course of many decades."

                    這群稀樹草原麻雀生活在北美東部芬迪灣附近的一個島上。自20世紀60年代開始就有團隊對它們展開研究,所以我們對這群麻雀比較了解。這意味著,我們知道近幾十年來這群麻雀在不同時期的叫聲。

                    Mennill and his team installed a series of loudspeakers on the island, and they played new tunes that the sparrows would never have heard otherwise.

                    門尼爾和他的團隊在島上安裝了一系列揚聲器。他們播放一些麻雀們從來沒聽到過的調子。 

                    "The kinds of sounds that we broadcast to the animals were based on savanna sparrows, the same species, but recordings collected on the western coast of North America, many thousands of miles away from our study population."

                    我們播放的聲音也來自稀樹草原麻雀——同一物種,但是來自數千英里外的北美西海岸的鳥群。

                    For six years, the researchers broadcast these novel songs to five cohorts of sparrows.

                    研究人員持續六年將這些新穎的歌曲播放給了五組麻雀聽。 

                     "Lo and behold, this bird that arrived to breed in the spring of 2014 opened his beak and sang a song that was a perfect match with one of our stimuli."

                     “瞧,這只在2014年春天出生的鳥張嘴唱了一首與我們播放的音樂完美搭配的歌。

                    In all, 26 birds learned their songs from loudspeakers rather than from other birds. And they had the same survival and reproductive success as all the other birds. All but one successfully mated and defended their territories. And four additional birds learned songs from birds that had originally learned from the loudspeakers.

                    總共有26只鳥學習了揚聲器里的歌曲,而不是同類的叫聲。們與同類具有相同的生存和繁殖能力。除了一只之外,所有人都成功完成交配并保衛了自己的領土。還有另外四只鳥從最初通過揚聲器學叫聲的鳥類身上學習了發聲。

                    "What we have now is a very unique, maybe a globally unique population of animals, where some of the animals sing population typical songs, that sound like other animals in their breeding population. But our experimental subjects who are living there now, are singing songs that are slightly different."

                    我們現在有一個非常獨特的,也許是全球獨一無二的動物群體。其中一部分唱的是本土的曲調,而另一部分,我們的實驗對象卻唱得略有不同。 

                    By returning to the island year after year, Mennill can study not only vocal learning, but the transmission of culture from one generation to the next. There’s a lot going on in those bird brains.

                    通過每年不斷的回訪,門尼爾不僅可以觀察麻雀聲音上的學習情況,還能看到一代代更迭后的變化。麻雀的腦中變化復雜著呢。


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